About half of the sites had recovered on the morning of October 29th.
The identity of the perpetrators is not clear. The scale and focus are reminiscent of the attacks Georgia faced against Russia during its brief war in 2008, but the election of the image raises doubts about Russia’s commitment. ZDNet pointed out that Saakashvili was and still is pro-Western and is still considered a reformer, even though he traveled to Ukraine in 2013 for hotly debated corruption charges (where he is now a citizen). It would be strange for Russia to use the ex-leader as part of its usual attempt to fuel social tensions. And when Georgia last held its last presidential elections in October 2018, there was no direct political gain.
Whoever is responsible, the cyberattack could reveal weaknesses in the security of Georgia. The researchers said the pro-service attack was not very sophisticated, and the local service of Radio Liberty pointed out that the country is sometimes dependent on Russian online services. City councils, for example, use a Russian e-mail service. If Russia had been involved, Georgia might have become an unnecessarily simple target.